Books and Movies Reviews

Sons and Lovers

Comment on Freudian Psychoanalysis theory:. Freud starts his mission in the world of psychology with the treatment of hysteria which according to him was caused by sexual desire but unfortunately this was not acknowledged by his mentor Dr. Joseph Breuer under whose guidance Freud learnt about hysteria. This presupposition about psychological diseases was one of the bases of Freud’s sex theories. Besides, he had a guess or assumption of the division of human brain and its functions.

He strongly believed and popularized the idea of conscious versus unconscious mind. In his hypothesis, the conscious ind is what one is aware of at any particular moment like someone’s present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, feelings etc. ; and preconscious mind is what closely works with the conscious mind or it is the memory that is not presently conscious but can be made conscious easily. According to Freud, these two are the smallest parts of brain the largest part is what he called the unconscious mind.

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In Freud’s view this unconscious level of mind is the source of man’s motivations such as desires for sex, food and so on, Furthermore, Freudian psychology is largely based on objects that are guided by needs; unger, thirst, the avoidance of pain and sex. Dr. C. Boeree comments that “When everyone thought of male and female as roles determined by nature or God, he showed how much they depended on family dynamics. ” Hence, Freud’s thoughts are supposed to be guided by desires. To him these desires are the fundamental factors of human life and psyche other than any spiritual and moral functions.

According to Freud, among the objects organism is the prime one whose important part is nervous system which is known as id at beginning. This id transforms the needs of organism into motivational forces which Freud called ishes. Here there is a great contradiction regarding this id. Dr. C. Boeree says ‘The infant, in the Freudian view, is pure or nearly pure id” Now question comes if a child’s id is pure how does he or she possess sexual complexity or desire which causes him to envy his father even to wish death for him?

It is a well-known fact that the human brain has both some conscious and some unconscious feelings and functions but the question is whether the brain is naturally divided or not? Or does there truly exist any unconscious level of mind which lays the foundation for sexual desire? If it is true with empirical vidence then Freud can have a universal appeal, otherwise modern psychology and civilization have to reconsider and be careful about its disastrous effect on them. According to Dr. C.

Boeree “Behaviorists, humanists, and existentialists all believe that: (a) the motivations and problems that can be attributed to the unconscious are much fewer than Freud thought, and (b) the unconscious is not the great churning cauldron of activity he made it out to be. Most of the modern psychologists today see the unconscious as whatever we don’t need or don’t want to see. Some theorists don’t use the concept at all”, . Carl Jung, another amous psychologist, says that it is the concept of unconscious which has made Freud nothing but puny.

The conscious is on the other hand a function or feeling of brain not its level or part. There is no separation or any separate parts in brain known as conscious, unconscious and preconscious. All Freudian movement is run based on this concept, actually it is nothing but a scheme. Professor Joseph Jastrow in his prominent work Freud: his Dream and Sex Theories gives a rather rational evaluation of unconscious mind hypothesis of Freud. He says that unconscious is the fundamental source of Freudian psychology. All Freudian ovement is run based on this concept, actually it is nothing but a scheme .

The fundamental question is here cheated. If we accept this then we may also accept the ancient concept of ghost, applied by Morceress for the treatment of hysteria. Though Freud got some popularity but it was like Hoodman who also achieved fame for his division of mind based on guess. He claimed that man has two minds but later this assumption was dumped as an unscientific one. It indeed remained as an erroneous chapter in the history of unconscious. Likewise, Dalpon says Freud’s unconscious mind does not have any scientific value. It is a hadow of ghost and should be thrown out as Hoodman’s.

He further says that am supposed to come to this conclusion that Freud’s unconscious is nothing but a groundless imaginative story. So it is now easy to conclude that Freud’s concept of sex remaining in unconscious is also groundless as because there is no existence of such level in brain or unless there is any level which contains sex from one’s birth then it is quite easy to agree with those biologists who claim that sexual desire is not inherited by birth other than it is rather a physical need which depends on growth of human anatomy or body.

For instance, those who uffer from any physical weakness or diseases consequently suffer from sexual weakness too. That means there remains a causal relation or interconnection between body and sex. Therefore we can say that in Freud’s time medical science, biology and the equipment of biological test were not as modernized as they are today. When Freud divided human brain into three levels, he had quite little opportunity to find reliable and diagnostic evidence about the formation and function of brain.

Consequently, he had to depend on his imagination and presupposition for this division. For instance, Freud was totally dependent on Hypnotism for he treatment of hysteria. This hypnotism was not indeed any scientific remedy prescribed by medical science rather it was used by sorcerer, charmer, and those who treat with amulet and quack remedies . But unfortunately Freud was guided by this unscientific method of superstitious people for his psychoanalysis and sex theories. Possibly for this reason Freudian psychoanalysis has almost lost its value and rationality to modern psychologists.

On the contrary, modern psychologists and biologists have rather invented the existence of glands which actually contain and pass our feelings and sentiments nstead of three levels in our brain. These glands create feelings in the body and not in the brain, which grow with age and require maturity of themselves as well as body to create (sexual) feelings . Hence it is quite clear that children’s glands and feelings must differ from those of adults’. C. W. Valentine thus perfectly says, “… children are free from all sexual feelings”.

Oedipus complex One of the major discoveries made by Sigmund Freud was his theory called the Oedipus complex. This theory is also one of the most controversial theories Freud is associated with. What Freud meant by the Oedipus complex is rather imple to understand. The little boy begins to develop a sexual attachment and desire for his mother. He wants her, and in the mind of the boy the father becomes a rival. Hostility toward the boys father grows and he wants to replace him, and even do away with him.

The boy fears his rival father’s ability to castrate him thus taking away his prize possession, the penis (Fromm 1980). The Oedipus complex can include the relationship of daughter and father, but for the purposes of this essay we will focus on the individual relationships between a son and mother. Freud claimed in a letter written to his colleague Wilhelm Fliess, “l have found the phenomena of (a boy) being in love with (his) mother a universal event in early childhood” One may think this theory to be possible, because the concept has greatly dominated the modern way of thought.

Specially, in case of literature the upshot of this theory is quite vivid because Freud himself has taken the imaginative root of his theory from the masterpiece of Greek literature Sophocles’ King Oedipus . However, Many of the modern writers are also greatly influenced by the theory and have been trying their utmost to prove the universality of Freud’s theory. Among such writers D. H. Lawrence is remarkable. Through his masterpiece Sons and Lovers, Lawrence has tried his best to universalize this Freudian concept. He tries to show that his hero Paul can never come out from the labyrinth of Oedipus complex as mythical Oedipus could not.

Hence he tends to make a universal link between the two worlds modern and ancient in order to prove the eternal appeal of Oedipus complex. But when have read the book, the main character Paul has no serious Oedipus complex. On the basis of family condition he has faced a lot of problem from his early life to end life. Comment on Oedipus complex; the theory: According to Sigmund Freud he accidents or incidents in the life of Oedipus happened because of sexual complexity between Oedipus and his mother. And on the basis of this story he invented the concept Oedipus complex which he attributed to the children of about the age of three to five.

He views that all human behavior are motivated by sex or by the instincts, which in his opinion are the neurological representations of physical needs. He firstly referred to those as the life instincts which perpetuate the life of the individual, initially by motivating him or her to seek food and water, and secondly by motivating him or her to have sex. The motivational energy of these life instincts, the “oomph” that powers our psyches, he called libido, from the Latin word for “l desire”, Freud’s clinical experience led him to view sex as much more important in the dynamics of the psyche than other needs.

We are, after all, social creatures, and sex is the most essential of social needs. Here, we have to remember that Freud put much more importance on sexual desire than anything else. Thus, it is clear that Freud thought that man was born with some feelings and sentiment like sexual desire, propensity etc. According to him, man is sex-driven y birth; a child must possess sexual desire even when he is in his mother’s womb and this inborn sexual predisposition lays the foundation for all other propensity.

But this claim of Freud has been disproved by a number of modern biological experiments or tests which suggest that every propensity or sentiment is originated from separate nerve, and sex producer nerve is unable to produce other feelings, similarly other nerves are not also involved in producing sex. And at the time of birth sex producer nerves are immature which require a certain stage of age to produce sexual feelings that means theses cannot work before looming youth. However, there are a number of empirical researches which prove that during childhood children are free from all kinds of sexual feelings or complexities.

In this case eminent modern American psychologist Dr. C. W Valentine’s experiment is remarkable. Dr. Valentine observed thousands of children, aged up to six in order to verify Freud’s view of child-sexuality. Finally he came out with the result that is shown in the following diagram. I Son’s attraction to father I Daughters attraction to I Son’s attraction to mother I Daughter’s attraction to I IAge of children I I father 120% 128% 136% 25% 115% 177% 161% 157% 168% I mother 187% 166% 178% 1 12 years 1 13 years 1 14 years 1 15 years 1 16years 111% | 23% ” (valentine: 1962.

P. 108) Through the above mentioned diagram Dr. Valentine shows that there is no imbalance in attraction in son or daughter towards father or mother as Freud claimed. Neither male nor female children have any revengeful propensity towards their parents of opposite sex. He rather shows that there is a regular and harmonious fluctuation of attraction or affection of children towards their parents; in some stages sons feel more attracted to their fathers, and in other tages towards their mothers. So is the behaviour among the daughters towards their mothers and fathers.

That means the feelings does not remain fixed. Another research was conducted on children psyche by famous research institute The Gesell Institute of Child Development . The institute carried out an experiment on a group of children aged up to ten and has published a book named Child Behavior that analyzes the attitude, behavior and sentiment of children. The book dedicated its full three chapters to the analysis of the sexuality of children, mother-child relation and father-child relation. But there s no mention of Freud’s view of child-sexuality.

The author of the book seems not to even assume any possibility of sexual desire in children’s mind as because they totally ignored the significance of the concept of Freud to be discussed. Paul’s personality against Oedipus complex in sons and lovers The relation between Paul and his mother Paul is more delicate and quiet than any other children with his pale faces, and looks older than the other children at the same age. So his illness tends to further his mother’s love upon him still more. He is very conscious of what other people feel, particularly his mother.

When she frets, he can understand her, and can’t keep himself calm at the same time; his attention seems always to be centralized to her. Because love creates love and it is a natural process of child’s mind. So Paul’s passion upon his mother and the mother’s upon him are quietly mutual relation. When he is together with his mother, they tell each other their feelings from their innermost world, and share the happiness and grievance with each other. Because only Paul is very nearer child then her other children to and make a relievable relation with her mother like a faithful friend and Mrs.

Morel is very onservative she does not share her pain with her neighbor. When Mr. Morel (Paul’s father) is in hospital as a work accident, they were all silent on account of their anxiety about their father. Paul is little boy and totally ignored from his father’s love so he says to his mother with joy: “I’m the man in the house now. ” “They learned how perfectly peaceful the home could be. And they almost regretted—though none of them would have owned to such callousness—that their father was soon coming back. ” Paul feels disappointed and fear again after his father comes back from hospital because of his fathers ad temper.

Paul is nearly 20 years old, but his affection is completely controlled by his mother. While her mother is an exceedingly religious woman, her father is hard drunkard, her mother’s refined manner also contradicts with his father’s vulgarity. He is hostile to his father, and often prays “Lord, let my father die. ” When he grows older, his mother is the most important and the only lofty person in his mind because he has taken a good education and gets a good job only for her mother. Facing the intense conflicts between mother and Miriam, Paul thinks his total care belongs to his beloved mother.

And the reason is his irresponsible father and carefree brother and daughter who have no more care about mother. There is a short conversation from him to his mother: “At any rate, mother, I’ll never marry. ” [5] , which can show that he is involved into an physiological trouble due to his father’s irresponsibility towards his mother. Paul always worries about a lot when he gets along with the other women because of the same problem. He is with Miriam so closely and so often that makes the relationships of he and his parents more complex and bring new problems and trouble to him.

He can’t ontrol himself and handle it successfully as his family problem seriously. So he loses the ability to love other women. “He was afraid of her. The fact that he might want her as a man wants a woman had in him been suppressed into a shame. When she shrank in her convulsed, coiled torture from the thought of such a thing, he had winced to do depths of his soul. And now this ‘purity’ prevented even their first love kiss. It was as if she could scarcely stand the shock of physical love, even a passionate kiss, and then he was too shrinking and sensitive to give it. this context revels that Paul have no believe on other girls because of his fault personality and shame of expression so he wants to pass his day with her mother’s shadow for mental satisfaction. It is not related Oedipus complex. Paul’s friend Miriam and Mrs. Morel have many similarities in their personalities. Just as Mrs. Morel, she is not only educated, but also full of confidence and independent spirits, and at times keeps Paul in a subordinate position. Since Paul dose not grown up in normal family, he can’t have a normal a manorial relation with Miriam.

He hates her because she makes him contempt himself in some way. When he stays with Miriam, he feels the bad mantel condition of his mother. So his deepest care belongs to his mother. His mother looks like a magnetic pole that prevents him do not go way a destruction life. Paul can’t help missing his mother for a long time after her death, because he loses the power which supports his life. And this support can be possible for a mother because every mother has a bright dream for her children and mother soul is dedicated for the child.

Although he grows up, because of fault personality; he can’t build up a right superego concept to control his instinctive impulsion which goes against is affair with Miriam. And he can’t make his emotion develop healthily. A caring outlook from the son to his mother has existed to the end of the novel. At the beginning, Paul can take good care of his mother when she is ill down, he and his sister can’t stand to see their beloved mother live in such pain so that they give her an extra dosage of morphine in their mother’ cup to prevent her pain but Mrs. Morel dies.

Death is a natural law so Paul and his sister are not responsible because Mrs Morel had a lot of care and responsibility for his drunker husband, careless eldest son, sick Paul and so on. So he gets himself into trouble again, he seemingly realizes that he never lives by his own will and his own way, he never leads a real life for himself. He not only feels that he can’t live without her but also feels if she lives, he can’t live independently. His mother was his only advisor. The conflicts between Paul and his mother Sons and lovers reveals two quite different kinds of relationships that can’t be separated from each other.

The identity of a son indicates a family relationship which relates the boys to their parents by blood relationship; while the identity f a lover indicates a special human relationship, which reflects the emotion between men and women. In the novel, Paul is not only a son but also an individual, who has a problem in his personality and do not related with Oedipus complex because he dates with the other two women still. Paul also quarrels with his mother this time instead of giving up directly: ‘Well, I can’t help it. Their jaw isn’t so almighty important, after all. –“What can people say? —that we talk together, I believe you’re jealous. ” . This speech clear us that Paul is angry with her mother because of his weak superego. The factors caused Paul’s relation with his mother 1 Mother’s maternity to her son Firstly, Mrs. Morel, mother of the sons, is the major character, who comes from a good burglar family, civilized and educated well. She also has refined manners comparing with the vulgar women in Bottoms. Her husband is from a lower class. He is a struggling coal miner and a heavy drinker. They have nothing in common.

In fact, their marriage life is very frustrated which is full of conflicts. At a Christmas party, the father’s vigor melt the mother’s Puritanism and make her decide to marry him who lives in a poor family. Mrs. Morel thinks that she would reform the miner and bring him up to her level of manners. But very soon she knows he can never be reformed. On the contrary, Mr. Morel becomes more and more cruel and fierce to the family due to Mrs. Morel’s complaints and contempt. Every morning, the father crawls into the dark and dump pit, and work hard.

In the evening, he doesn’t come back until he is dead drunk. When he is at home, he treats his wife and children brutally. He even locks his wife out of the door when she is pregnant, and hits her head violently just after she gives birth to a baby. It seems only when he is drunk, can he temporarily escape from his sorrow and fatigue; only when he maltreats his family, can he mitigates his fury and grievance. So the harmonious atmosphere is destroyed. The mother is unsatisfied and angry with the coal miner, because he not only fails to live up to her bourgeois idea, but also hurts her in body and mind.

Their marriage is broken up completely, as Lawrence once described: “their marriage life has been one carnal, bloody flight. ” As her husband’s does not love her, she slowly inexorably transfers her emotions to her children to alive her family. In her eyes, her sons are her sprite to live. She wants to grown up her son properly so that she get a beautiful life from her sons in order to make up her destroyed family. When Mrs. Morel finds that Paul has been with Miriam very closely, she is afraid that Miriam will absorb him and take him away from her, so shouts at her son enviously: “l can’t bear it.

I could put up with another woman”but not her. She’d leave me no room, not a bit of room. ” Because Mrs. Morel has seen William’s complex feeling about his beloved and has gained a bitter experience from Lilly who was beloved of William. William and Lilly went to London and William came back but was a dead body. Mrs. Morel seems that Lilly was the most responsible to take way William from her and either good or bad ,every beloved can do everything without the tension of her lover’s family. Here Mrs. Morel’s unbearable objects are ‘love’ and ‘beloved’ which destroy William life.

Here the phrase ‘no room’ or ‘a bit of room’ come from her experience that Lily dose not continue a well behave at her visiting time with their. If she does it, Mrs Morel gets a room for interacting with them freely. And from that point of view, she as utterance this speech. Obviously, Mrs. Morel really does not want to face the reality which she has faced for William. This is not the factor of Oedipus complex. When Miriam often dates with Paul, Mrs. Morel can’t control her envious feeling again. At a time, she says to Paul angrily: “Is there nobody else to talk to? -Yes, know it well–l am old, and therefore I may stand aside; have nothing more to do with you. You only want me to wait on you–the rest is for Miriam. ” In this context, think they spend much time in their dating. As if she does not like Miriam with Paul so she feels angry. ‘l am old and therefore am stand aside’ refers that once his mother advised him to took at the advertisement in the papers because his mother thought might suit him. Then she accompanied him to Nottingham for a interview. Now grows young Mrs.

Morel’s support on him grows down so Mrs. Morel thought she is old and stands aside as a result she has nothing to do for him. Mrs. Morel knows that Paul goes to Miriam to talk and he has no work with her but Mrs. Morel waits for him. Husband means not only bed partner but also he has some responsibility for his wife. At this point of view Mrs. Morel is very unlucky and there are a lot of example in this text. For example Mrs. Morel was happy for nine months in their early marriage life. And I think the character of Mr.

Morel is responsible to dismiss the happiness of their marriage life. On the other hand , Mr. morel is the father of four children. Overall, Mr. Morel marries her only for bed partner but never shows his responsibility towards her so she vows to Paul “l have never–you know, Paul”I have never had a husband – not really–” From the analysis above, we can know it’s the mother’s maternity o her son that caters to, even strengthens Paul’s against Oedipus complex which comes into being naturally and normally when he was a baby according to Freud’s theory.

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